I    C   E   N   E

B                      U                   L                 L               E                  T               I                 N




Editors:                                                                                           David and Monica Lilley



Distribution:                                                                                   Tony Court                     

                                                                                                          Hilary Rule           


All contributions please to 8 Brookhampton Street.  Deadline for next Icene Bulletin


12th February  2009



Refuse Collections during February

Monday       2nd   February      -        Green bin and green boxes (bottles, tins & plastic)

Monday       9th    February      -        Black bin collection

Monday       16th  February      -        Green bin and green boxes (bottles, tins & plastic)

Monday     23rd   February       -        Black bin collection

Bins and boxes must be placed out by 7.00 a.m. on your designated day of collection.


The following items were discussed at the meeting held on Wednesday 21 January 2009:


A meeting of the Finance sub-committee had been held and they proposed that the precept be kept at £15,000.  Terry Sadler had forwarded his views and recommended £15,525.  Following discussion, Sheila Birch proposed and Liz Goddard seconded that the precept be raised to £15,525.  The Chairman called for a vote and it was agreed by 4 votes to 3 against, that the Precept be raised to £15,525.   

Butcher’s Hill Street Light – Report that this light is still not working has not had any effect despite the Clerk sending numerous e-mails and phone calls to the appropriate authority.  The Clerk was asked to contact Wendy Landown, the new liaison officer at Cambridgeshire County Council who Lewis Duke and the Clerk met at the Police Neighbourhood Panel Meeting.                                                                 

Mill Lane Crossing – Some work has been done on the crossing since the last meeting, and a resident reported that two members of Network Rail were at the crossing on Tuesday. The Chairman had visited the site that day and said he was still not happy with the crossing, although it looked like about ¾ of the work had been completed.  Wellcome Trust had written a strong letter to Network Rail supporting us in getting the crossing made safe.  No further response has been received from Andrew Lansley CBE MP and the Clerk had contacted his Secretary for a response on 11th January 2009.  The Clerk will update Wellcome Trust, Andrew Lansley CBE MP and also contact Network Rail asking for confirmation in writing that they consider all the work has been done and is safe and to confirm any recommendations for crossing the line.             

Frogge Street 30 mph Speed Limits – A letter had been received from Steven Thulborn (CCC) stating that any extension of the 30 mph speed limit as suggested would not comply with County Council policy so therefore the limit would not be relocated.  The Clerk will send a copy of the letter to the Parish Clerk of Great Chesterford Parish Council.

Potholes - Sheila Birch reported more potholes – cemetery bend, Grange Road (near Redlands footpath), Grange Road (near the arch bridge), Hinxton Road near exit of Wellcome Trust walk.  The Clerk will also raise our concern again about the poor state of the surface in Frogge Street.  A complaint had been received from a resident about the state of Frogge Street.

Speeding – The Clerk has notified the police about cars speeding into The Stackyard from Coploe Road following a complaint from a resident.

Planning Application(s) received from SCDC

S/1551/08/F – Extensions, Alterations & Conversion of existing Agricultural Buildings to Offices – Abbey Farm, Duxford Road – Mr L Duke – Amendment: Revisions to design - Information only

S/1552/08/LB – Alterations, extension and conversion of two outbuildings to office use – Abbey Farm, Duxford Road – Mr L Duke – Amendment: Revisions to design - Information only

S/2079/08/LB – Alterations - replace one window (SW elevation) & block window on front – Ickleton Lion, 9 Abbey Street – Greene King Pub Partners - Approve

S/2094/08/LB – Erection of signage – Ickleton Lion, 9 Abbey Street – Green King Pub Partners - Approve

S/2123/08/F – Dwelling – Land to the west of 20 Church Street – Mr & Mrs R Maynard







A site visit (19/01/09) had been carried out by kind permission of Mr & Mrs Maynard and copies of two objection letters sent to SCDC had been received.  The Councillors (who had attended the site visit) had considered and discussed the application and recommended that it be refused on the following reasons:

The Councillors voted unanimously to refuse this application

S/2170/08/CIRC 14/90 – Pole – Land South East of Church Platt Cottage, 110 Frogge Street – EDF Energy Networks - Approve

S/2151/08/F – Dwelling – Land to the North West of 9 Grange Road – Rowe Build & Development Ltd.  The Councillors felt that their previous objections still stood and noted the site was outside the conservation area. 

The Councillors voted unanimously to refuse this application.

Planning application(s) withdrawn from SCDC:

S/1536/08/F/RMc – Erection of Grain Store & repositioning of Polytunnels & Glasshouses – Rectory Farm, Grange Road – RGR Smith & RAGT Seeds Ltd

S/1846.08/LB – Install replacement vehicular & pedestrian gates & fences – Harlequin House, 43 Abbey Street

S/1844/08/F/EC – Replacement Gates & Fencing – Harlequin House, 43 Abbey Street

S/1551/08/F – Extensions Alterations & Conversion of Existing Agricultural Buildings to Offices – Abbey Farm, Duxford Road

Planning application(s) granted by SCDC:

S/1839/08/F – Extension (Amendment to Approved application S/0357/08/F) – 21 Mill Lane

S/1626/08/F – Additional Dwelling – 13 Birds Close

Planning application(s) refused by SCDC:

S/1821/08/F – Garden Room – Caldrees Manor, 2 Abbey Street

S/1823/08/LB – Alterations-Replacement of Conservatory by Glazed Garden Room – Caldrees Manor, 2 Abbey Street

Speedwatch – please see separate article.

Other items of interest:

Cambridgeshire Fire & Rescue Service will carry out a home fire safety check.  They check current smoke detectors in your home, replace where necessary and fit new ones if more are required.  They also speak to you about general fire safety in the home.  This service is FREE.  Should you wish to take advantage of this, please telephone ( 01223 376217 to arrange an appointment/visit.

Business Link announces £500 voucher scheme to support East of England businesses through the economic downturn, which are redeemable in exchange for consultancy services.  For further information contact Business Link on ( 08457 171615 or e-mail: healthcheck@businesslinkeast.org.uk 

The Pauline Quirke Academy of Performing Arts is a Saturday performing arts school held every week from 10.00 a.m. – 1.00 p.m. in Parkside School, Cambridge.  The Academy is for young people aged 7-18 and they teach three units:  Musical Theatre, Film and TV and Comedy/Drama each week.  They are also looking for a Drama Teacher.  For further information, please contact Daniel Schumann on ( 07974 303464 or ds@danielschumann.co.uk

Youth Bank Cambridgeshire – if you wish to know more about the Youth Bank, and wish to receive their bulletin, please contact Nick Moore e-mail: nick@young-lives.org.uk

                        Jocelyn Flitton – Parish Clerk









There are no Notes from Hinkledux Rectory this month. However from March the Lay Ministers and Churchwardens of Duxford, Hinxton and Ickleton will take it in turns to be guest contributors.


Useful Contact details for Ickleton Church

Church Office                                                               ( 01223 832137 (answerphone)

e-mail address                        Hinkledux@googlemail.com

Churchwardens           Simon Casement                

                                      Rosemary McKillen              

Prayer Ministry            Jackie Casement                          

Lay Ministers               Julie Baillie                           

                                      Judith Wright                         



                        Sunday 1st

   8.00 a.m. Holy Communion


Presentation of Christ In the Temple

 10.00 a.m. Parish Eucharist with Sunday School



   6.30 p.m. Evensong





                    Thursday  5th

  11.30 a.m. Holy Communion





                       Sunday  8th

    8.00 a.m. Holy Communion


                 3rd before Lent

  10.00 a.m. Family Communion



    6.30 p.m. Evensong





                 Thursday 12th

  11.30 a.m. Holy Communion





                    Sunday 15th

    8.00 a.m. Holy Communion


                 2nd before Lent

  10.00 a.m. Family Communion



    6.30 p.m. Evensong with laying on of hands





                  Thursday 19th

  11.30 a.m. Holy Communion





                    Sunday 22nd

    8.00 a.m. Holy Communion


               Next before Lent

 10.00 a.m. Family Service



   6.30 p.m. Evensong





         Ash Wednesday 25th

   8.00 p.m. Holy Communion with imposition of ashes





                    Thursday 26th

 11.30 a.m. Holy Communion




The evening of Thursday 18th December turned out just right. The group swelled during the evening with about 20 adults and 8 children making a splendid sound. After a halfway stop at Rosemary and Colin Hayes’ for mulled wine and mince pies we finished up for more food and more mulled wine at Miranda and Mark Stone-Wigg’s!  Many thanks to them and as usual to Jackie Casement for organizing help. The collection this year raised £160 for the Red Balloon anti-bullying charity. Many thanks to all for their generous contributions.                    John Williams



After the success of last year’s Church Fete we would like again to thank everybody who helped in any way.  This year’s Church Fete will be held on Saturday 4th July. If you would like to join us or have any new ideas please contact me.

For this year’s Fete we are delighted to announce that we are going to introduce a Flower and Produce Show.  We are very pleased that John and Christina Taylor will be running this, so please look in future ‘Icenes’ for more information.                      Monica Lilley - Fete Organiser





The problem of speeding vehicles in rural villages and the effect it has on local communities has been brought into sharp focus through Police Neighbourhood Panel Meetings. 

Speeding is highly emotive.  Discussion about it often leads for calls for more enforcement action to be taken which is unsustainable across the many parishes that perceive they have a speeding problem.  Additionally, public perception of speeding hot spots does not correlate with the analysis of casualty reduction sites identified by the County Council, which is where their efforts are prioritised.  This difference creates unhelpful tensions and does little to aid understanding and build confidence.  A new approach is needed and Speedwatch, a Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Road Safety Partnership initiative provides that opportunity.

Speedwatch provides the opportunity for the public to influence and contribute to the education of drivers and to assist the police to identify locations, which deserved enforcement activity.  It will also help inform decisions around other speed reduction measures.  It relies heavily on members of the community volunteering to monitor the speed of vehicles in their or an adjoining neighbourhood using free standing portable detection and display equipment (see below).  Volunteers work in groups, ideally 3, and monitor the speed of vehicles and record the details of those exceeding the speed limit.  Details are noted and the information passed to the police.  Letters are sent to the registered keepers of the vehicle advising them of the circumstances and requesting their co-operation to reduce speed.

Speedwatch is therefore not an enforcement activity.  The aim is to provide advice to speeding motorists to improve driver behaviour and to prevent collisions by encouraging drivers in Speedwatch areas to slow down.  This scheme is intended to educate rather than to prosecute drivers.  The results of Speedwatch operations will be monitored carefully and those found to be repeat ‘offenders’ will be the subject of targeted action by the police.

The speedwatch initiative has been piloted extensively in East Cambridgeshire.  The feedback from volunteers and local people has been extremely supportive.  Volunteers feel that they are actually doing something to help reduce speeding in their villages.  Residents feel more satisfied that something is actually taking place and those caught speeding have accepted the advice graciously realising that it would be a summons in the future.

The equipment to be deployed is the freestanding Speed Detector Unit (Minivisor 230VAS) marketed by Radarlux.  See:  http://www.radarlux.co.uk/products.htm  (This equipment is heavy!)  All volunteers will be fully trained and supported by named police staff.


If anyone in the village is interested in participating, please contact either Terry Sadler or Jocelyn Flitton.



At this time of year there is usually a flurry of comments in the press about the pressures on hospitals.  Addenbrooke’s is no exception and has been hit hard this year particularly with the winter vomiting bug norovirus.  But it is not just epidemics of flu, chest infections and falls in icy conditions that cause the pressure on our hospitals.

Many people go to A&E for problems which are neither accidents nor emergencies.  Most of these problems can be dealt with at your GP surgery. 

Using A&E for non-emergencies puts unnecessary pressure on the hospital and diverts care away from those most in need.  So, before going to A&E, ask yourself if your problem is really an accident or emergency which needs hospital care.  If not, then please ring the surgery rather than going to A&E. 

Sawston Medical Practice is open throughout the day from 8.00 a.m. and always has both a duty nurse and duty doctor available to assess urgent problems.   We are working in partnership with NHS Cambridgeshire to reduce unnecessary hospital attendances and keep A&E free for those who need it most.                                                                                                                Jenny Parker



The last bus from Saffron Walden now departs twenty minutes later at 1800, reaching  Ickleton at 1814, Sawston at 1829 and Cambridge at 1907.

The rest of our timetable is unchanged.                                                                                 David Lilley






We had a well attended New Year’s Day walk with 20 people and two dogs. The route selected by Sheila Birch was an interesting one, leaving from Gipsy Corner and heading southwest up to a ridge and following the Parish boundary before descending to Grange Road and returning to our cars.

We were then entertained to some very tasty soup and drinks by Sheila and Gerry. Many thanks to the Birches for organising the event and providing the much appreciated hospitality, and to a couple of others who supplied some of the soups.  Thanks also to Peter Wombwell and Lewis Duke for allowing us access across their land.


WINE TASTING:  We’ve decided to repeat last year’s very successful event and it will be held in the Village Hall on Friday 20th February @ 7.45 p.m.  Once again our local wine expert, Sebastian Payne will provide and tell us about the selection of wines.  Cheese and nibbles will be provided and tickets are priced at £15 per person.  Space is limited - we can only cater for around 40, so first come – first served.

Tickets available only from Neil McKillen or mckillens_ickleton@btinernet.com.



Sadly we have lost another long time member of the Over 60s club with the passing of George Lilley on Christmas Day.

He was able to come to our last meeting of the old year to enjoy a game of dominoes and the Christmas tea, thus leaving us with happy memories of him.                                    Cynthia Rule


The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus has a proactive Environmental Policy and an associated Energy Campaign. As you have previously shown an  interest in environmental issues,  you are warmly invited to attend  our Energy Awareness Day taking place on-site on Wednesday February 11th from 11.30 - 15.00 in the Cairns Pavilion.
Previous Awareness Days have been extremely successful, with a high staff attendance. On February 11th there will be opportunities to learn about the initiatives we've introduced on Campus to reduce our carbon footprint. There will also be information for us all on how to further reduce our energy consumption and our impact on the  environment  at work, and in the home. There are always loads of hints and tips, gadgets and freebies available to take away on the day. This year, we are particularly pleased to announce the support of the  Energy Saving Trust advice centre East of England  (www.energysavingtrust.org.uk), who will be providing attendees with  a home energy check questionnaire to determine your home ‘energy  rating’!
If you would like any more information about our environmental  policy, or if you would like to get involved on the day itself,  please contact Dawn Wise (Facilities Manager for Security, Green  Transport & Energy Management), email: dawn.wise@hinxton.wellcome.ac.uk) - and we'll get back to you!                                                                                                                    Cordelia Langford

                                                                                                     Genome Campus Energy Focus Group



On December 4th the local W. I. members were invited to Scotsdales’ Nursery for a festive evening with coffee, mince-pies and a talk on Orchids and other indoor plants by Peter Jackson.  All purchases were given a 10% discount, and many festive plants etc. were brought with Christmas presents in mind.

Our Christmas meeting was great fun, when we played a Rudolf Drive devised by Julie Baillie.  This was followed by a pot luck supper, ending up traditionally with carols.

At the January meeting Lucy Anderson gave an interesting talk on the Life of the River Cam from the 11th century onwards.

At the next meeting on February 18th Basil Abbot will talk about his occupation as a Toastmaster. A reminder that cakes for Saffron Walden Community Hospital will be required at the February meeting. Also subscriptions £29 are due.

Visitors welcome, please ring if interested.                                                     Cynthia Rule






William Charles Rule, known to everyone as ‘Bill’ was born in Mill Lane, Ickleton on 31st January 1930.  The family moved to Hauxton, where Bill attended Harston and Hauxton School.  His father died when Bill was only thirteen, and it was necessary for Bill to leave school and find work as soon as possible.  He joined the Pest Control and was engaged in crop spraying, particularly the overhead spraying of orchards, and he travelled as far afield as the Scilly Isles.  Bill worked for the company for twenty-five years, before leaving to join Ciba, where he was happily employed for the following twenty-one years.

Bill loved to dance, especially rock and roll and he used to cycle over from Hauxton to the village hops here in Ickleton. This is where he met Iris Toombs and romance blossomed.

They married here in Ickleton Church on January 3rd 1953.

For a short while Bill and Iris lived in Brookhampton Street, where Robert was born.  Then they moved to Bird’s Close, where Karen was born, completing the happy, close-knit family.  Bill spent many hours tending his garden, but he made time to indulge his passion for walking.  He encouraged Karen to join him and together they set off on their mini hikes, enjoying the countryside around and about Ickleton.  Bill was very proud of his family.  He was a loving supportive and encouraging father and a hands on grandfather, adored by his grandchildren and great grandchildren.  He and Iris were perfect partners in a long and happy marriage.

Apart from his family, Bill’s passion was driving, with his great friend, Reg.  The pair took part in MCC rallies, time trials and endurance events three times each year, for thirty years or so.  Reg built a two seater sports car, which was their pride and joy.  The Easter rallies at Land’s End were a great favourite and many good friends were made whilst enjoying the sport and socialising at the hotel in the evening.

Bill and Iris loved to travel, to see new places and to meet new people.  The Ickleton coach holiday was a regular fixture, and they always explored Europe.  Bill had no interest in photography, but his excellent memory recorded details of visits and events.

Following his retirement from Ciba, Bill needed an outlet for his energy and he became an invaluable asset at Robert’s garage, undertaking all manner of odd jobs and excelling at brewing the perfect cuppa.

Bill’s final months were borne with fortitude and hope, cared for by his family.  Towards the end, the support of the nurses from Sawston Medical Centre was a great comfort.  Bill died peacefully at home on December 17th at 78 years of age.                                                                     Julie Baillie


Thank you

All the family of Bill would like to thank all friends and neighbours for their cards and letters received, also for donations to Sawston Medical Centre in his memory.

Thank you to Julie Baillie for her comforting services at both church and crematorium. It was very much appreciated                                                                                Iris Rule and family




On Sunday 8th December seven volunteers from the Cambridge Conservation Volunteers and one villager carried out a day’s cutting back of encroaching blackthorn and hawthorn scrub. Fortunately the day was reasonable, between some rainy days and a subsequent cold spell. Work over the years is paying off as the chalkland species have expanded within the pit, and August saw the return of several spikes of Felwort aka Autumn Gentian.              Gerry Birch




Would you be interested in attending a morning Pilates class in Hinxton Village Hall? 

There is the possibility that a qualified Pilates teacher may be able to come and take classes one morning a week after Easter, but it would be helpful to gauge the level of interest before she commits herself to it.  Please contact the Hinxton Parish Clerk if you might like to take part.

 Margaret Malcolm .  Email: margaret.malcolm@virgin.net








George Lilley was born on 30th December 1926. He lived with his grandmother, who brought him up in her home in Frogge Street, Ickleton and remained with her until she died in 1943.  After her death, George went to live with his uncle and aunt, Hubert and Mabel Lilley, who kept the ‘Jolly Butchers’ public house and shop in Abbey Street.

When he left school, George went to work for Godfrey’s until he was called up for military service at the age of 18 in January 1945.  George started training with the Parachute Regiment, but because he had flat feet he was rejected and posted to the Pioneer Corps.  After demobilisation he went to work for Sindalls, who were doing building work for the expanding Aero Research (Ciba) at Duxford. In 1950 George decided to re-join the Army and he signed on for five years, this time with the Suffolk Regiment, where he rose to the rank of lance corporal.  After training, he was sent to fight the terrorists in the jungles of Malaya.  When he was demobilised, he went on a demob course at Letchworth, where he trained as a welder.  His first job after this training was at Marshalls in Cambridge. Later he went to work for Acrow’s in Saffron Walden.  His final employment before retirement was with the local council.

George continued to live with his aunt Mabel when she moved to the bungalow near the river at 33 Church Street.  George enjoyed gardening, and he helped his neighbour Mrs. Fawcett with her garden, in addition to tending the rose borders at the village war memorial.  He had a great interest in wildlife, especially birds, and he kept his meadow as a conservation area for ground nesting birds.  The local duck population responded to his call to be fed, flying into his garden from all along the river.  For many years George shared his life with a feathered companion – Joey, an African Grey parrot.  Joey declined to mimic human speech, but he was an expert at other sounds, notably mimicking the trains on the nearby railway.

George was essentially a private man, but he enjoyed life.  His friends will remember the jokes he like to play upon others.  For many years George belonged to the Ickleton Over Sixties, where his favourite game was dominoes.  For the past five years or so, George was unable to get about without assistance and the highlight of the week was when Wilf would collect him and they would set off to a garden centre and then have lunch. 

Wilf was with George on Christmas morning when he died suddenly, but peacefully, in the home he loved so much, just five days before what would have been his 82nd birthday.      Julie Baillie



The family would like to thank everyone for their prayers and attendance at the funeral service, and for the generous donations to Ickleton church.



I was very interested in so many familiar names in the ‘Lest we Forget’ article in the December issue. One in particular I do know something about: Private George Frederick Dean of the Bedfordshire Regiment.  He was of course the husband of my aunt ‘Nance’ (Annie Elizabeth Clements) and father of my cousin Joan (Dean) Dawson.  Joan didn’t remember her dad but I do have a photo of the three together.  A few years ago my cousin Hedley Igglesden visited Abbeville cemetery in France and found the grave of George Dean, as he died in 1917 in France  aged 30, and his name is also on Ickleton War Memorial.

Also would there now be anyone who remembers my dad’s elder brother George Ernest Clements? Even my late cousins Douglas and Ursula (children of Uncle Wilf) were only 9 and 6  when he died in May 1928 at the age of 36 years. George was a sergeant/cook in the Cambridgeshire Regiment and a motor mechanic in civilian life. At least we do have contact with George’s grandchildren, Paul Clements and Christine Bryant, and there is a good photo of the five brothers in uniform in the Society photos. They all survived W.W.1.

There is a question mark against a Reynolds name.  Reynolds was a Hinxton family.  I knew Tony and Eric from school days.  Hope this is of some interest.  All the best to everyone.

                                                                                         Molly Dagley nee Clements in the Midlands

Alfred Reynolds was born in Ickleton, but his father came from Sampford. His mother was an Ickleton woman, Sarah Freeman. So Alfred Reynolds and Herbert Freeman on our War Memorial were cousins. Unusually, George Dean is also on the Weston Colville War Memorial, the village where he was born.                                                                                               David Lilley






We would like to thank everyone who came to see our lights, and helped us to raise £153 for The Breast Cancer Unit at Addenbrooke’s.  Thanks again, and a Happy New Year to everyone.

                                                                                                                             Carol and Barry Turton


We would just like to say a fond farewell to everyone we have known over the years whilst living in Ickleton.  We would also like to wish the new owner of Merrick House, James Hart, all the best, and hope he is very happy there.                                                               Kim, Steven & Jo Ball


CONGRATULATIONS TO….Dick Wombwell who was 80 on the 21st December.



Steve and Lynn Parsons and Lauren, aged 2, who have moved to Church Street.

and also to

Jonathan and Gina Warren who have moved to Church Street



Every Tuesday evening in February at 8.00 p.m. in the Friends Meeting House, Saffron Walden.

Tuesday 3rd February                                         A NW Anglia National Park in   

David Heathcote                                                 Essex/Cambs/Herts/Suffolk?


Tuesday 10th February                                       Mr. Terra Cotta and the Beautifying of the

Dr. Colin Cunningham                                        Victorian City (Alfred Waterhouse)


Tuesday 17th February                                       Losing Track? Transport in East Anglia, 1900 to

Tony Kirby                                                           the present day.


Tuesday 24th February                                      Mr. Saffron Walden, the Life and Times of

Jeremy Collingwood                                           George Stacey Gibson (1818-1883)


Tickets for the series of four lectures are £17.50.  Individual sessions £5.50.

Enquiries ( 521290 or strethall.church@btinternet.com or the Tourist information Centre.

Further information also on http://www.icknieldwayparish.com

Tickets for the series available from the Church Office, Crawley End, Chrishall, Royston SG8 8QL – please mark the envelope ‘LECTURES’ and include your cheque and a SAE. Cheque made payable to Strethall Church Fabric Fund please.                                                                                     Michael Pearson



Police (reporting a crime, non-emergency)                                                       '    0845 456 4564

Police – Emergency Calls                                                                                  '    01223 358966



February 3rd

Church Coffee Morning 10.00 a.m. - 12.00 noon  Church


Gt. Chesterford & District Gardening Society Meeting 8.00 p.m.


      Chapel, Carmel Street, Gt Chesterford, subject -


      ‘Through the Year with an Horticultural Photographer’


Mobile Library


Welcome Trust Energy Awareness Day 11.30 a.m. Cairns Pavilion, Hinxton Hall


Over 60s Meeting 2.30 p.m. Village Hall


Parish Council Meeting 7.30 p.m. Village Hall


W I Meeting 7.45 p.m. Gt Chesterford Community Centre


Ickleton Society Wine Tasting  Evening 7.45 p.m. Village Hall


Mobile Library